Constructal timeline brings together the most important publications (books and articles) and conferences in the Constructal realm.
This paper outlines a completely deterministic ("constructal") Theory of why quasi-similar street patterns exist, how they form, and how they grow in time. The function of the street network is to connect a finite area to a single destination point. The new idea is that the network of streets evolves in time, by starting with the optimization of the shape of the smallest area element that is serviced by the network. Next, the optimized area elements are assembled into a larger area element which is again optimized for shape. This sequence of optimization & organization is repeated in finite-size steps, toward larger quasi-similar assemblies. The optimization consists of minimizing the travel time between each point of a finite area and a common point of destination. The network is constructed (optimized, organized) in time. Every single geometric feature of the network is the result of pure, deterministic theory: the shape of each area element, the shape of each new (larger) assembly, the optimal number of parts in each assembly, the relative orientation of successive streets, and the optimal width of each street.
“For a finite-size system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed currents that flow through it.”
The principles used to design heat exchangers can now be applied to predict the structure of trees and other natural networks.
In this groundbreaking book, Adrian Bejan starts from the design and optimization of engineered systems and discovers a deterministic principle for the generation of geometric form in natural systems. Shape and structure spring from the struggle for better performance in both engineering and nature. This observation leads to constructal theory, that is, the thought that the objective and constraints principle used in engineering is also the mechanism from which the geometry in natural flow systems emerges. The principle accounts not only for tree-shaped flows but also for other geometric forms encountered in engineering and nature - round ducts, regularly spaced internal channels, the proportionality between width and depth in rivers.
Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics, Durham, NC, USA
Constructal theory and its applications to various fields ranging from engineering to natural living and inanimate systems, and to social organization and economics, are reviewed in this paper. The constructal law states that if a system has freedom to morph it develops in time the flow architecture that provides easier access to the currents that flow through it. It is shown how constructal theory provides a unifying picture for the development of flow architectures in systems with internal flows (e.g., mass, heat, electricity, goods, and people). Early and recent works on constructal theory by various authors covering the fields of heat and mass transfer in engineered systems, inanimate flow structures (river basins, global circulations) living structures, social organization, and economics are reviewed. The relation between the constructal law and the thermodynamic optimization method of entropy generation minimization is outlined. The constructal law is a self-standing principle, which is distinct from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The place of the constructal law among other fundamental principles, such as the Second Law, the principle of least action and the principles of symmetry and invariance is also presented. The review ends with the epistemological and philosophical implications of the constructal law.
Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics, Durham, NC, USA
Constructal Human Dynamics, Security and Sustainability, Evora, Portugal
Shape and Thermodynamics, Florence, Italy
Constructal Theory and Multi-Scale Geometries, Paris, France
Convection in porous media has a large field of application. Firstly, this book presents an analytical and numerical study of the generation and flow of methane gas through a layer of porous medium impregnated with solid clathrate hydrates. Later, design with constructal theory is addressed. We start studying the fundamental problem of maximizing the thermal contact between an entire heat-generating volume and a pulsating stream of coolant that bathes the volume. A series of examples in which the global performance of flow systems is optimized subject to global constraints is also presented. The text continues describing a hierarchical strategy to developing the optimal internal structure of a round heat-generating body cooled at its center with the help of optimally distributed inserts of high-conductivity material. Finally, it considers the fundamental problem of squeezing into a fixed volume the highest heat transfer rate that can be made to occur between two streams at different initial temperatures.
Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): ‘for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides greater and greater access to the currents that flow through it’. This law is about the necessity of design to occur, and about the time direction of the phenomenon: the tape of the design evolution ‘movie’ runs such that existing configurations are replaced by globally easier flowing configurations. The constructal law has two useful sides: the prediction of natural phenomena and the strategic engineering of novel architectures, based on the constructal law, i.e. not by mimicking nature. We show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is the same phenomenon as the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems. Examples are lung design, animal locomotion, vegetation, river basins, turbulent flow structure, self-lubrication and natural multi-scale porous media. This article outlines the place of the constructal law as a self-standing law in physics, which covers all the ad hoc (and contradictory) statements of optimality such as minimum entropy generation, maximum entropy generation, minimum flow resistance, maximum flow resistance, minimum time, minimum weight, uniform maximum stresses and characteristic organ sizes. Nature is configured to flow and move as a conglomerate of ‘engine and brake’ designs
Constructal Theory Symposium, Design in Nature 2010, Pisa, Italy
The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law states the time direction of the evolutionary design phenomenon. It defines the concept of design evolution in physics. Along with the first and second law, the constructal law elevates thermodynamics to a science of systems with configuration. In this article we review the more recent work of our group, with emphasis on the advances made with the constructal law in the natural sciences. Highlighted are the oneness of animate and inanimate designs, the origin of finite-size organs on animals and vehicles, the flow of stresses as the generator of design in solid structures (skeletons, vegetation), the universality and rigidity of hierarchy in all flow systems, and the global design of human flows. Noteworthy is the tapestry of distributed energy systems, which balances nodes of production with networks of distribution on the landscape, and serves as key to energy sustainability and empowerment. At the global level, the constructal law accounts for the geography and design of human movement, wealth and communications
Constructal Law Conference, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
The emergence and development of constructal theory, which has been a new discipline branch to research sorts of structures in nature and engineering, are reviewed. The core of the constructal theory is that various shapes and structures of the matters in nature are generated from the tendency to obtain optimal performance. Constructal theory and its application are summarized, from disciplines such as heat, mechanism, fluid flow, electricity, magnetism and chemistry, to life and non-life systems in nature.
This is a review of the theoretical and applied progress made based on the Constructal law of design and evolution in nature, with emphasis on the last decade. The Constructal law is the law of physics that accounts for the natural tendency of all flow systems (animate and inanimate) to change into configurations that offer progressively greater flow access over time. The progress made with the Constructal law covers the broadest range of science, from heat and fluid flow and geophysics, to animal design, technology evolution, and social organization (economics, government). This review presents the state of this fast growing field, and draws attention to newly opened directions for original research. The Constructal law places the concepts of life, design, and evolution in physics.
Constructal Law Conference, Nanjing, China
Constructal Law Conference, Parma, Italy
Here, I review the physics meaning of optimization, knowledge and design evolution, and why these concepts and human activities are profoundly useful for human life. A law of physics is a concise statement that summarizes a phenomenon that occurs in nature. A phenomenon is a fact, circumstance, or experience that is apparent to the human senses and can be described. The design in nature phenomenon facilitates access for everything that flows, evolves, spreads, and is collected: river basins, atmospheric and ocean currents, animal life and migration, and technology (the evolution of the “human-and-machine species,” wealth, life). This phenomenon is summarized by the constructal law: the occurrence and evolution of designs in nature, its time direction. Based on its record, the constructal law accounts for the design phenomenon and also for all the phenomena that have been described individually (ad-hoc) with end-design (destiny) statements of “optimality” (min, max). Most notably, the constructal law accounts for contradictory end-design statements such as minimum entropy production and maximum entropy production, and minimum flow resistance and maximum flow resistance.
Constructal Law & Second Law Conference, Bucharest Romania
NSF Workshop, Villanova, PA, USA
Constructal Law Conference, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil